Quba

According to the advanced drawn up plan Dahsnak-Bolshevik troop had to enter into Qubadistrict after occupying Shamakhi. Armenians residing in Khachmaz were informed about this and they were given additional weapons and supplies. To call the massacres that began from the first months of 1918 in Quba district as a tragedy do not explain the essence of barbarism. Killing thousands of persons, peaceful people, women, children and adults by torture was terrible and incredible. Quba tragedy had absolutely political purpose. Besides Armenian dashnak forces, Bolshevik soldiers took part in massacres. Armenian criminals realized a great massacre in Quba by using skillfully non-power. The main purpose in these massacres was to build Soviet regime in Azerbaijan by killing Muslim people. Because Shaumyan who leaded to Soviet regime used all the chances in order to establish a great Armenian state in Southern Caucasus . If only Azerbaijan state were not established.

Other point of the event is that massacres in Quba district were planned beforehand and some preparatory works had been carried out. Because national dispute may be a pretext for beginning massacre. Armenian dashnak forces sent telegrams to all part of the world as thought Armenians were pressed by Muslims. It was claimed in the te;egram sent by M.Kasparov, H.Hayrapetov, A.Mukanyas and A.Bogdanov residing in Quba, as if Muslims carried out national hostility and national massacres, destroyed Armenian and Russian villages, burnt mosques in Quba.

By the help of Bolsheviks Armenians had realized massacres three times in Quba district. Besides David Gelovani who leaded to 2 thousand soldier and displayed himself as a Bolshevik among the invaders in Quba, there was Bolshevik Sturua. There were thousand of soldiers in his group. Before them 2 thousand Armenian soldiers led by Muradyan carried out massacres in Quba district. That group consisted of the soldiers of “Dashnaksutyun” party that was known as a close ally of Russian tsarism in the First World War. Bandit groups of Avakov and Vartan who had armed forces more than 300, consisting of local Armenians also helped to the invaders.

Despite of there were soldiers in Quba up to 100, extra help was sent from Khachmaz to Gelovani. D.Gelovani wrote: 150 person group consisting of Armenian led by the first lieutenant Agajanyan and two cannons sent to us for helping”. D.Gelovani’s coming to Quba, demanding special group and send a special group just organized by Armenians showed that ethnic hostility – genocide against to the Muslims was planned beforehand. Thus in the beginning of March 1918 when the richest Armenians who left Quba hastily by selling their properties were asked the reason of this they said: “theer must be something between us, therefore the committee calls us back”.

When D.Gelovani came to Quba he freed military Armenian prisoners up to 200. According to the documents of Extraordinary Investigation Commission and explanations of witnesses the prisoners were part of those Armenians who realized barbarism in the region at the beginning of the year. At that time inhabitant of Kuzun village of Qusar , who got education in Turkey , authoritative religious man Mohubeli efendi, as well as an inhabitant of Chagar village Hatem Sarkarov called local people to the fight against to the Armenian dashnaks, put to rout people by getting help from Southern Dagestan Lezghins. Muradyan run away and saved by 100 soldiers and dahsnaks up to 200 were arrested by the task of Mohubeli efendi.

When D. Gelovani driven away from Quba he threatened people and said that soon there would come specially trained punitive forces of Armenians. It is known from country history study that after 10 days of his threatening Armenian troops armed by cannons and machine-guns come to Quba from Baku . The group of Amazasp began to burn city beginning from entrance till upper part of Quba. Dashnaks shot all the people in the streets whom they met, made a hole in the bodies of fell wounded people by the bayonets of rifles, punched a hole in their eyes. The people who were not able to run into near forest entered into their houses and closed the doors. They were taken out of their homes, shot or carried to square. Within some hours hundreds of persons were killed.

It is clear from the documents and explanations of witnesses of that period Armenian dashnak forces used Bolshevik soldiers with a great skillfully. One of witnesses wrote: “When we saw violent dashnaks we had to fight with them unequally. During one day shooting we lost more than 200 fighters and came back to Digah village with 40 persons. Amazaps both got angry because of this and feared a little”. Collected Quba people and informed: “I am an Erzurum Armenian who cut off thousands of Turks’ head. I have burnt more than 200 Turk villages and devastated them. I have fight with turks for a long time, have defended the Armenian interest. And I have come here for this purpose. If you put up resistance, I will exterminate all of you”. The massacres done by dashnak-Bolshevik combinations in Quba district were more severe and cruel. One of witnesses writes: “Amazaps called an Armenian Harun Yahrapetov who was from Quba and who guided dashnak group and said something to him. Harun took a list from his pocket and began to read. The names of 26 rich people of Quba were in that list. Amazasp sent some of armed soldiers for those people. When armed soldiers came back with six persons of those people dashnak commander was got angrier. 4 of them were women, another 2 were teenager. By the order of Amazasp the head of teenagers were cut off, the women made drink the blood of their children . When the women cried and jumped over them they punched a hole them by bayonet. Then they divided the women into two parts by sword. When there heard cry in the square Amazasp stand the soldiers in a row and ordered them to shoot helpless, barefoot people. Hundreds of people were killed. One can not believe that human being can create such kind of wildness”. “I’ll drink your blood” – said Amazasp and ordered to burn down the properties of named persons in the list. All by these actions he proved his being blood-sucker and cruel.

Amazasp had received such kind of order from repulsive Shaumyan regime: To kill all Muslims in Quba district, to destroy their residences. Then to note this massacre as a conflict between Sunnite and Shiite.

It is clear from investigation documents that on 1 May 1918 the number of dashnak-Bolshevik unities was more than 5 thousand. Therefore they could easily inflicted reprisal to peaceful people. In order to describe the scale of that uncontrollability it is enough to remember that up to 4 thousand people were killed in Quba within two days. This number was one fifth of Quba people.

Harun Shahbali oglu who was from living witnesses of massacre: “So many people were killed by Armenians that The streets of Quba were beaten to death. When they collected more than 2 thousand people to the square and wanted to shoot a person approached to their head. It is said that he was a commissar. After talking a little it was ordered to lower the weapons. The women and the children were crying. A lanky Armenian approached to people and began to choose young and pretty women. More than fifty women were carried somewhere. When the brother of those women rejected he was shot in his place. They lay his corpse and took out his eyes by knife. Armenian threw away the eyes that were in his bloody palm to the people. Crying voices heard from people. Dahsnaks began to beat people by butts abusing in Armenian. Then the abdomen of an old man who came forward was punched by bayonet. This was not a trouble that could not be seen obviously”.

Another witness writes: “Armenians brought religious men to the center of Quba. These beaten people were the respectful elder men of the district. Amazasp called a known Harun, an Armenian from Quba. Harun said in Azeri that Sunnite and Shiite stay face by face. And they stood like that. There was approximately 20-30 meter between them. Then they brought two rifles and said: “We will kill all of you. Who wants to be alive fulfill my order. Sunnites and Shiites shoot each other by turn. We will not touch survived persons. They called the first two persons and gave the rifles them. One of them was a Lezghin, the other was elder man of Shiites Meshedi Mirsadig. None of them wanted to take Armenian weapon. They split their heads and forced them take the arms. Both of them took the arms and took aim. All the people were waiting for the end. A little young Mahammad came back and lay one dashnak. Meshedi Mirsadig killed an Armenian in the confusion. They killed hundreds of people by machine-gun who wanted to run. Most of the dead people were women and children. Firstly arms the legs of Mahammad were cut off. His head was cut off and passed into bayonet and raised upper in order to be seen by ever one. The eyes of Meshedi Mirsadig were punched, hi arms broken and his neck was broken. At that day dashnaks destroyed the mosque; more than 20 religious men were killed”. In order to make the mater exact A.Novatski noted that dashnaks burnt mosques and they burnt 26 mosques only in Quba, Qusar, and Khachmaz territories.

Dashnaks who completely destroyed sacred religious points of Muslims, ruined thousands of books related with the religion, Eastern history and literature. Armenians who burnt the mosque of Abdurrahim efendi in the center of Quba burnt the books up to 1300. Ibrahim Aydemirov, the famous religious man, one of the living witnesses remembers: “There were books in Digah mosque, which written in the Albanian and Arabian language concerning 600-700 years. Besides ruining those books Armenians blew up the stone of sacred place which located in one kilometers of the village mosque. This was a huge stone that was Albanian writings on it”.

Amazasp who came to Quba destroyed the houses of those people who imprisoned the soldiers of Muradyan, burnt their property completely by revenging.

Gelovani writes in the report of Extraordinary Investigation Commission: “I came to Quba by getting great authorities. I offered Amazaps to leave the city with their groups. Firstly he hesitated and then informed that he was ready leave the city. He really left the city with his group on the tenth day of his being in Quba”. But explanations of Gelovani are not proper to the reality. Because if Amazasp leave the city so easily, then why he said to local people: “I defend the interests of Armenians. I have sent by the punitive detachment in order to take vengeance on them because of Armenians who were killed here two weeks before. I was sent here not to introduce proper order, to build soviet government, but to revenge for killed Armenians. I was ordered to kill all the Muslims residing from the Caspian Sea to Shahdag..”. He said: “At the present moment my fights are realized in Digah and Alpan villages. Then I will go to Uchkun and Kilid villages and reach to Shahdag”. Amazasp’s wish was not realized. The fights lasted for 3 days ended by the victory of Muslims. Both sides had serious loss. Struggle place known in the history as a “Bloody valley”.

As a result of Amazasp’s wildness during 5 months of 1918 more than 16 thousand people were killed in Quba district. According to the different source and explanations of witnesses Lezghin up to 12 thousand, Azeri Turks more than 4 thousand and tat people had been killed. During 1918 massacres dashnak-Bolshevik unities destroyed 162 villages in Quba district, 35 of them not exist.

 

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